The Digital Karl Barth Library provides sophisticated searching and easy navigation across large numbers of primary-source documents.
Users who wish to get quick access to specific works, should begin by familiarizing themselves with the various Tables of Contents.
Users who wish to conduct in-depth searches, either of specific documents or of the entire database, should explore the capabilities available on the Simple Search and Advanced Search pages.
There are three basic ways to use the database.
The navigation bar lets you move around the database retrieval tools, including the Search tools, the Document Lists tools, and the Tables of Contents tools. (The graphic below is just an illustration; it does not have live links.)
The Search tools are divided into two separate categories:
The gray color indicates which search tool you are currently using. As you move from tool to tool, the gray moves to indicate which tool you've selected. You may click on the maroon parts of the Navigation Bar to move to the appropriate tool. For more on searching, see sections two and three below.
The Tables of Contents portion of the navigation bar lets you move around the Tables of Contents tools. This portion of the navigation bar is divided into three separate groups of writings. Users can choose the group of writings to gain quick access to specific documents within the selected group.
Available Tables of Contents
1.5 DOCUMENT LISTS NAVIGATION BAR
The Document Lists portion of the navigation bar lets you move around the Document Lists tools. This portion of the navigation bar is divided into three separate parts. Users can generate lists of documents (sections of volumes) by composition/publication date, composition/publication place, and document type.
PhiloLogic, a suite of software developed by the ARTFL Project at the University of Chicago in collaboration with The University of Chicago Library's Electronic Text Services, provides sophisticated searching of a wide variety of large encoded databases on the World Wide Web. It is an easy to use, yet powerful, full-text search, retrieval, and reporting system for large multimedia databases (texts, images, sound) with the ability to handle complex text structures with extensive indexed metadata.
PhiloLogic in its simplest form serves as a document retrieval or look up mechanism whereby users can search a relational database to retrieve given documents and, in some implementations, portions of texts such as acts, scenes, articles, or head-words. This same document retrieval mechanism serves as the basis for defining a corpus in a full-text search. One can, for example, either retrieve all documents in a database written by women from 1935 through 1945 or one can search for words or phrases within a database which fit those criteria. The typical PhiloLogic search is broken down into five distinct stages: 1) defining a corpus (i.e. limiting a search), 2) word expansion, 3) word index searching, 4) text extraction, and 5) link resolution and formatting (e.g., XML to HTML conversion). In other words, after defining a corpus (or one may search an entire database), one can execute a single term, phrase or proximity search. By looking up indices of the word(s) in a relational database, PhiloLogic extracts blocks of text containing the search term(s) with links to larger blocks of text. These extracts are formatted to display on a Web browser and sometimes include links to images, sound recordings, other texts, or even other databases.
In addition to simple word and phrase searches, users can perform more sophisticated searches by using extended UNIX-style regular expressions for complex wildcard searching and, in some implementations, morphological and orthographic expansion. All of these mechanisms to expand words can be combined using Boolean operators such as OR (the vertical bar "|") and AND (a space), and NOT (an exclamation mark) within a variety of searching contexts.
Its functions were originally designed for scholarly research in databases of literary, religious, philosophical, and historical collections of texts as well as important historical encyclopedias and dictionaries. PhiloLogic handles notes so as not to interfere with phrase searching. Users can easily search words with diacritics (either by specifying accents or ignoring them by typing in uppercase) and non-Romanized scripts. At present there are some fifty databases on the Web under PhiloLogic containing languages such as ancient Greek, Latin, Hindi, and Urdu as well as nearly all Western European languages. PhiloLogic can also be set up to recognize or ignore manuscript notations such as different brackets, which can indicate spurious text or editorial emendations. Because the software recognizes typical text structures as real data objects, it understands units, such as words, sentences, paragraphs, sections, and pages, permitting very flexible searching and retrieval of these textual objects. Other full-text engines on the market search for strings of characters. Rather than searching for two words within the same sentence or paragraph (intellectual units), other engines must search for two words within a certain number of characters regardless of sentence or paragraph. With PhiloLogic scholars always know where they are in a given text since pagination can be displayed along side other objects. Although such a high degree of indexing can lead to reduced speed, PhiloLogic indexing has been maximized such that it is still incredibly fast on the Web.
For more information on PhiloLogic, contact Catherine Mardikes, ETS Coordinator, The University of Chicago Library.
There are two basic kinds of searching in the database:
The conventions used in each kind of searching are slightly different as shown below.
Full-Text Searching enables users to locate specific words or phrases that occur in the texts themselves. The term(s) to be searched in selected documents is entered into the Keyword or Phrase box on the search form. Word searches in PhiloLogic are by default case insensitive, so that a search finds both lower and upper case representations of words. To facilitate finding and viewing Greek, searching Greek words in The Digital Karl Barth Library is also accent insensitive. Wildcard characters may also be employed to match various forms of a given root or base. The simplest search in PhiloLogic is a single term search without wildcards. If searching for a term such as “Geist” in the database, simply type the entire word into the Keyword or Phrase box and press the SEARCH button.
PhiloLogic supports wildcard characters and Boolean (logical) operators, which are modeled on UNIX regular expressions to perform "pattern matching" in full-text searching. Pattern matching allows identification of a large number of words corresponding to a defined pattern. The most commonly used regular expression operators (wildcard and Boolean) are listed below.
Wildcard characters allow the user to find many related forms of a single search entry. This is in contrast to a simple word search that requires an exact match in order to find a word. Wildcard characters can be useful, for example, in identifying cognates made obscure by affixes and vowel weakening, inconsistencies due to irregular orthography, and variations on account of word inflection. The most commonly used wildcards are listed below.
matches any single character (e.g., gentlem.n will retrieve gentleman and gentlemen).
matches any string of characters, anchoring the match at the beginning of a word (e.g., cigar* will match cigar, cigars, cigarette, etc.).
matches any string of characters, anchoring the match at the end of a word (e.g., *habit will retrieve habit, cohabit, and inhabit), or in the middle (e.g., c*eers matches compeers, cheers, and careers).
.? (period question mark):
matches the characters entered or the characters entered plus one more character in place of the question mark (e.g., hono.?r matches both honor and honour and cat.? matches cat and cats, but not cathedral, Catherine, etc.).
matches a single character found in the specified range (e.g., [c-f]at will match cat, eat, and fat) or any letters within the brackets (e.g., civili[zs]e will match both civilize and civilise).
E (capital letter):
matches all accented and non-accented forms (e.g., to search naïveté regardless of accents type naIvetE).
Parentheses, various brackets, and double quotes are not searchable characters and are word-breaking (e.g., to search vor[r]ia enter vor r ia.
Common mathematical symbols, such as the equal sign (=) and minus sign (-) will produce a "Nothing found" message. The plus sign (+) is not a searchable character, and, if entered, will be ignored.
All punctuation should be stripped from word searches except for apostrophes. Apostrophes must be entered as characters.
To facilitate locating and viewing Greek words and phrases, Greek keyword searching in The Digital Karl Barth Library is accent-insensitive by default. So, for example, entering the characters λογος will return both the unaccented form λογος and the correctly accented form λόγος (as well as the capitalized forms Λογος and Λόγος). This relieves the user of the necessity of entering breathing marks, accents, and other diacritics.
When searching German, French, and other languages that use diacritics, users can employ the capital-letter technique described in section 2.2.2 above to execute an accent-insensitive search. That having been said, here are some general notes related to searching accented words and special characters in The Digital Karl Barth Library:
umlaut/dieresis = (") double quote
(e.g., u" matches ü).
eszett = (ss)
(e.g., dass returns both dass and daß).
grave = (\) back slash
acute = (/) forward slash
circumflex = (^) caret
(e.g., e^ matches ê).
cedilla = () comma
tilde = (~) tilde
ae-ligature (æ) = ae
oe-ligature () = oe
Formatting (e.g., font shifts, superscript, subscript, italics, bold, underline, etc.) are ignored in a search (e.g., search 1st simply as 1st).
PhiloLogic offers three kinds of full-text searches: Single Term or Phrase Search, which is set up as the default, Phrase Separated by X Words, and Proximity Search in the Same Sentence or Paragraph. One may select and de-select a search option by clicking on the radio buttons.
If searching for words that occur within the same paragraph, please note that many texts have paragraphs that are extremely lengthy.
2.2.8 Limiting the Scope of a Keyword Search
Users of The Digital Karl Barth Library have two sets of radio buttons on the Simple and Advanced Search forms that enable them to narrow the scope of their keyword searches. The first set of radio buttons gives researchers the option of (a) searching the entire database; (b) searching only the volumes published as part of the Gesamtausgabe; or (c) searching only the volumes published as part of the Kirchliche Dogmatik. So, for example, if you wish to search for the word Offenbarung, but only as it is used in the Kirchliche Dogmatik, enter the keyword, activate the radio button next to “in Kirchliche Dogmatik only,” and click SEARCH.
The second set of radio buttons gives users the option of excluding editorial matter from their searches. “Editorial matter” refers to any content that has been added by the editors or publishers of the original print volumes—for instance, editorial notes, forewords, and indices. By default, the search engine searches all editorial matter when the user launches a keyword (or biblical citation) search. However, the user can choose to exclude this content from a search by activating the “exclude editorial matter” radio button. When the “exclude editorial matter” radio button is activated, search results will not show any content from editorial notes, forewords, indices, &c.
3.2.1 Keyword or Phrase
See section 2.2 above for a detailed discussion of keyword/phrase searching.
3.2.2 Biblical Citation
Description: This field enables the user to locate all instances where Barth refers to a book, chapter, or verse of the Bible. Since citations in the source edition may be formatted in a variety of ways (consider “Genesis 3,” “Gen. III,” and “the third chapter of the first book of Moses”), we have inserted uniform tags around each citation. From the user’s standpoint, this value-added tagging effectively eliminates the variations in spelling and format, and allows one to return a comprehensive and accurate set of results for any biblical citation.
How to use this field: Use this field to search for citations of a book, chapter, or verse of the Bible.
Practical Example: Show all instances where Barth cites Romans 8:28.
Note: To eliminate biblical references found in editorial forewords, notes, indices, &c., activate the “exclude editorial matter” radio button, per the description in section 2.2.8 above. For information on combining keyword and biblical citation searches, see section 3.3 below.
3.2.3 Volume Title
Description: This field identifies the titles of all the volumes currently available in the database. For example, in the first release of The Digital Karl Barth Library, there are 36 volumes of Barth’s Gesamtausgabe. Each volume title will be listed individually.
How to use this field: Use this field to limit keyword and/or biblical citation searches to a specific volume.
Practical Example: Find all occurrences of the word “Rechtfertigung” in volume II.23 of the Gesamtausgabe (Die Theologie Calvins).
Description: This field identifies the document or section titles in all the volumes currently available in the database. For example, the Gesamtausgabe volume Predigten 1913 has 55 “documents” (most of which are individual sermons, but editorial sections are also listed).
How to use this field: Use this field to limit keyword and/or biblical citation searches to a specific document/section of a given volume.
Practical Example: Find all citations of John 1 in Section 11 of the Kirchliche Dogmatik (Gott der Sohn).
Note: Since the entire terms list in the Document/Section Title field runs very long, you can use certain strategies to shorten the list. For example, activating the “search in Kirchliche Dogmatik only” radio button will limit the list to available sections from that work only. You can also choose a volume in the Volume Title field, which will limit the list of titles in the Document/Section Title field only to those sections within the selected volume.
Description: This field indicates the types of documents included in the database. With the exception of editorial matter, every document or section in every volume is classified as belonging to one of six “document types.” The majority of the types reflect the genre organization used by the print publisher of Barth’s Gesamtausgabe. The additional term “dogmatics” is applied to all sections of the Kirchliche Dogmatik and to all those documents in the Gesamtausgabe that either are related to the Kirchliche Dogmatik (e.g., all sections in the volume Das christliche Leben) or are of a distinctly “systematic” nature in and of themselves (e.g., all sections in the volume Unterricht in der christlichen Religion).
How to use this field: Use this field to limit keyword and/or biblical citation searches to a specific type of document.
Practical Example: Find all references to Nazism in interviews and talks delivered by Barth.
3.2.6 Composition Place
Description: This field indicates all the cities where documents included in the database were composed/delivered/published. For lectures, letters, sermons, and interviews/talks, the city of composition/delivery is recorded. For major published works (which may have been composed over a long period of time in various cities), the original publication city is recorded.
How to use this field: Use this field to limit keyword and/or citation searches to the city where a given document was composed, delivered, or published.
Practical Example: Find all references to Harnack in documents composed, delivered, or originally published in Göttingen.
3.2.7 Composition Year
Description: This field indicates all the years when documents included in the database were composed/delivered/published. For lectures, letters, sermons, and interviews/talks, the year of composition/delivery is recorded. For major published works (which may have been composed over a long period of time), the original publication year is recorded.
How to use this field: Use this field to limit keyword and/or citation searches to the year in which a given document was composed, delivered, or published.
Practical Example: Find all references to Hitler in documents composed, delivered, or originally published between 1933 and 1940.
Note: To find works published before or after a given date, use an open hyphen, e.g., "-1950" to find works published before 1950.
3.2.8 Composition Month
Description: This field allows the user to specify the month when documents included in the database were composed/delivered/published. For lectures, letters, sermons, and interviews/talks, the month of composition/delivery is recorded. For major published works (which may have been composed over a long period of time), the original publication month (if available) is recorded.
How to use this field: Use this field to limit keyword and/or biblical citation searches to the month in which a given document was composed, delivered, or published.
Practical Example: Find all instances of the keyword “Offenbarung” in all sermons delivered in the month of December.
As indicated in the field descriptions and sample searches given above, The Digital Karl Barth Library gives users the option to enter information into multiple fields in order to frame sophisticated and targeted search queries. The sample searches given above show how you can combine a keyword search OR a biblical citation search with other metadata fields—e.g., find the keyword “nationalso*” in documents classified as “Talks”; or find references to John 1 in a specific section of the Kirchliche Dogmatik.
Users should also be aware that they can combine a keyword search with a biblical citation search. This combination will return results where the keyword and the citation occur either in the same sentence or in the same paragraph. To combine a keyword and a citation search, simply use the Proximity Search radio buttons next to the Keyword or Phrase field.
Practical Example: Find all instances where the keyword λογος (and associated inflected forms) occurs in the same paragraph with a citation of John 1.
At the head of any results set one finds the bibliographic criteria for the search, the number of texts searched, the search term(s) entered, and the total number of occurrences of the search term(s) in the database. The number of occurrences displays at the bottom of the report if PhiloLogic has not detected the number before generating the first 25 occurrences on the screen.
4.1 CONTEXT DISPLAY
Context Display is the default results format option. In this format each keyword or biblical citation is highlighted in red, located contextually within the portion of the passage in which it is found. Above the contextual representation of the keyword(s) or biblical citation, one finds a short citation consisting of the author’s name and a shortened version of the title of the document from which the excerpted passage has been drawn. This citation is followed by links to various levels within the document (page, paragraph, section, and subsection). Clicking on any of these links takes one to the specified level, where one will find the keyword(s), still highlighted, in the extended context of the paragraph, page, or section. Consider the example below, generated from a search for the keyword “Geist”:
Schöpferisches, aller Einzelüberlegung Vorausgehendes, selber keine Überlegung, sondern das Überlegte in allen Überlegungen. Synthese ist die Fähigkeit und der Wille zur Zusammenschau der Gegensätze, gleichviel, ob man dabei an Geist und Natur, Inneres und Äußeres, Ewigkeit und Zeit, Glaube und Ethos, Offenbarung und Geschichte, intuitives und diskursives Denken oder wie man es immer definiere, denken möge. Irgendwie synthetisch ist natürlich jeder individuelle Geist veranlagt. Es gibt aber
PhiloLogic displays as much text as needed to capture all words in a multi-term search and all search words are highlighted. By clicking on the page link, one retrieves the full page with all keywords still highlighted. The same is true for paragraph and the other levels of hierarchy.
Note: Remember that, when searching for two or more terms within the same paragraph, the context display expands the amount of text displayed to include all of the search terms in the paragraph. At times the text displayed in a proximity search to accommodate all the search terms may be several screens in length since some paragraphs in some documents are very lengthy.
In cases where a search finds more than 25 occurrences of a keyword or biblical citation, PhiloLogic provides the first 25 occurrences with links at the bottom of the report to the remaining occurrences of the search in sets of 100. One may also retrieve a full list of occurrences, which can be useful for downloading or printing, but which may take some time to retrieve. Note: when results number over hundreds or thousands of occurrences, the report may not be complete when first starting to view results. In this case, one sees the message "The search is still in progress. 908 occurrences have been generated so far. (Please follow the link(s) below to check on the progress)". The server continues to append results until it has completed the entire report and, by clicking on any of the sets of one hundred, one can retrieve the full report.
4.2 LINE-BY-LINE DISPLAY
The Line-by-Line Display is a good format for scanning or printing large result sets since it limits the text displayed to a single line of text. Each occurrence is represented by an abbreviated title citation with a link to the page in the document where the term occurs. At the bottom of the report one finds the Results Bibliography, which gives the full references for each title in the results set.
Note: When executing a "Proximity Search," especially with paragraph set as the searching parameter, it is best to avoid the Line-by-line format since all search terms are not likely to be in the single line of text displayed. The term that is located first in the paragraph is the one that is centered in the single line of text. Using the Context Display format ensures that all terms are included in the display even if the paragraph should happen to run for several pages. One can switch back and forth between line-by-line format and context displays at any time while viewing results. PhiloLogic takes the user to the same set of results being viewed at the time of the switch.
In addition to line-by-line and context displays, users also may choose from two options for sorting results: Frequency by Title, and Frequency by Year. Select Frequency by Title to see your results organized by document/section title, beginning with the work in which the term occurs most frequently. Select Frequency by Year to see your results organized by year, beginning with the year in which the term occurs most frequently. Regardless of the sort option selected, users will always see a number in front of each title. This indicates the number of times the term occurs within each work displayed. Users will also see an “occurrences” link after each title. Clicking on the “occurrences” link takes one to a context display, where each instance of the term within the selected title is highlighted and shown in context.
At the bottom of the Simple Search and Advanced Search screens, PhiloLogic offers various options for organizing and displaying results. The same set of options is available at the bottom of any screen where a searchable corpus of documents has been created. Unlike context and line-by-line displays, the reports generated when one uses the frequency options do not show terms in context. Nevertheless, links are provided if the user wishes to view term occurrences in context.
A Frequency by Title report indicates the number of occurrences by title in descending order of frequency. Each document/section title has a link for viewing all occurrences of the term found within that title. If multiple unique forms of the term have been located, the report will identify each unique form next to the phrase Search Terms.
A Frequency by Years report indicates the number of occurrences by year (or span of years) in descending order of frequency. Each document/section title has a link for viewing all occurrences of the term found within that title. If multiple unique forms of the term have been located, the report will identify each unique form next to the phrase Search Terms.
Note the drop-down box in the Frequency by Year field. Users can select to display frequency reports by year, decade, quarter-century, half-century, and century.
Frequency per 10,000 reports differ in that they list frequency of the term in descending order of rate per 10,000 words. The number of raw occurrences is given in brackets. For example, 76.09  means that a total of 58 occurrences of the term have been found at a frequency rate of 76.09 occurrences per 10,000 words for a given document title or year/span of years.
These reports do not display occurrences in context. Nevertheless, links are provided if the user wishes to view term occurrences in context.
The collocation table is a very useful tool for scholars analyzing the way that authors like Barth use specific words—in particular, words of theological or philosophical importance.
A collocation table indicates the frequency of words adjacent to a specified keyword. The user selects one word as the node or keyword and enters it into the Keyword or Phrase box. Wildcards are allowed, but no phrases; single terms only are permitted. Next, activate the Collocation Table radio button at the bottom of the screen and select the number of words you want the collocation search to span (5 words is the default). The program then scans the concordance entries for the keyword and lists in table format all the words that occur near the keyword within the specified span. The table ranks words in order of the frequency with which they occur near the keyword. The three columns represent words on either side of the keyword, words to the left of the keyword, and words to the right of the keyword. Common words such as articles and demonstratives are filtered out. To include filtered words in a report select "Turn Filter Off" on the search form.
In the example below, a collocation table has been generated for the keyword “vernunft.” The table indicates that the word “kritik” occurs most frequently within 5 words on either side of the selected keyword. Of all words occurring to the left of “vernunft” the word “reinen” occurs most frequently, while “offenbarung” occurs most frequently to the right of the selected keyword. The number in parentheses next to the word indicates the number of times the term occurs in the result set.
Keywords found (with occurrences): vernunft (625)
The 229 most common words are being filtered from this report. To include filtered words select "Turn Filter Off" on the search-form.
Line-by-Line (KWIC) sorted by Keyword allows a user to sort his/her results alphabetically by the word that is located immediately to the right or left of the keyword. This report does not support phrase searching. It can only be generated for a single word or word pattern (e.g., myster*). Results of over 20,000 cannot be sorted.
A Word in Clause Position report can only be generated for a single word or word pattern (e.g., concord*). Word positions are calculated as follows: Front of Clause (first 35%); Last (last 10%); Remainder (middle 55%). Words of 2 letters or fewer and numbers are excluded in calculating clause length. Please note that clauses are identified with punctuation as the primary determining factor so many unpunctuated clauses will go undetected. This feature is experimental and should be used only as a rough indicator. The search can take some time for complete results, but one does receive results as they are ready. When the report is finished, click on the link to "Statistical Summary" to see a rough indication of word position.
Users may elect to sort full-text search results alphabetically by title or chronologically by year of composition/publication. To use this feature, enter your desired term(s) in the Keyword or Phrase box, then scroll to the bottom of the screen and activate the radio button next to the Sort Full Text Search Results by Bibliographic Information field. The available sort options are: Author, Title, which will return results for your search organized alphabetically by author name then alphabetically by title; and Author, Year of Publication, which will return results for your search organized alphabetically by author name then chronologically by the composition (or original publication date) of each title.
In Context Display one finds several options for viewing larger portions of content. In addition to "page" and "paragraph" links, you'll see links for "section" and, sometimes, “subsection.” These divisions reflect the logical organization of the document. The most common “section” type is a chapter within a work, although the precise nature of sections and subsections will vary according to the structure of the printed document itself.
Any level—paragraph, page, section, or subsection—may be selected by simply clicking on the appropriate link. Once you have reached the specified level, you will find the search term(s) still highlighted. You may also find links for navigating to the next paragraph, page, section, or subsection. By using these links, you may continue reading the document paragraph by paragraph, page by page, or section by section.